(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

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Environmental Biology of Fishes 5: The AE values obtained for B. Changes in assimilation efficiency have been described in ectotherms, allowing them to utilize different types of foods more efficiently HornBenavides el al. The efforts directed toward understanding and explaining the physiological diversity in animals has been concentrated in comparative studies between species from different habitats. The Tukey test HSD was used to establish differences among samples.

During the vufo 2 h, the feces produced by each group of tadpoles were collected with a Pasteur pipette.

American Journal of Physiology In order to satisfy the normality requirements of the data, the assimilation efficiency were transformed using: Periodic wpinulosus between thigmothermic behaviour and locomotory activity during the night maintains body temperature above air temperature and prolongs the period of food uptake. For the statistical analysis of the results, three-way ANOVAs were used with locality, temperature and diet as the predicting factors. These latter values are comparable to our results for B.

Error bars correspond to SE. Table 1Fig.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

Revista Chilena de Historia Natural Environmental temperature has traditionally been considered as one of the most relevant factors affecting the physiology of poikilotherms Rome et al. Retrieved from ” https: Received December 2, ; accepted March 1, Once the larvae reached a Gosner stage between 21 and 23 they were randomly placed at a density of 15 individuals mL -1in plastic containers of a 1 L capacity and a photoperiod of 12O: Results showed that geographic origin did not affect assimilation efficiency, while the relationship observed between temperature and diet quality was significant.

Toads preferred sites that provided shady hiding places as well as sun-exposed bare soil within a radius of 5 m. We predict that tadpole feed with rich nutritional diet and growing at high temperature will show higher assimilation in comparison to tadpoles growing both a lower temperature and a nutritional quality diet.


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Finally, we would like to give special thanks to Dr. However, assuming that the absorption of ash is constant for all of the diets and the time remains in water was the same; this type of error is acceptable to determine spinu,osus comparative assimilation efficiency. However, the digestibility of the HQD is not affected by temperature. Advances in Ecological Research However, they frequently changed their centers of activity and moved to other sites in m distance after periods of days.

It breeds in temporary ponds, altiplano lagoons, and slow flowing streams. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Given the wide geographical distribution of B. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

The volume of urine stored into the urinary bladder of toads varied diurnally; during basking in the morning hours most bladders contained large volumes of urine, whereas during the afternoon the bladders were mostly empty. All containers were checked every 24 h to guarantee the availability of food. American Museum of Natural History.

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International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation. Bulletin of Marine Society Take account the above information, we discard locality as a relevant factor in order to explain assimilation differences observed among tadpoles. The assimilation values for each treatment were calculated as an average of the percent assimilation obtained for each three samples and expressed as percent assimilation efficiency with a standard error.

Moreover, studies oriented toward understanding thermal acclimation at the population level are scarce Marquet el al. If the sky was clear, toads emerged from their hiding place and exposed themselves to solar radiation during h in the morning.

Assimilation efficiency in Bufo spinulosus buo Anura: According that, the above conditions it seems no affect the spinulosks evaluated in our experiment. The larvae from El Tatio and Chita were directly collected during springwhile the larvae from Chusmiza and Farellones were obtained via artificial reproduction of individuals collected bufp spring Before the experiments, bbufo ash content of the two experimental diets was determined using the same procedure describe above, and the energy content kJ spinulosud dry ash weight was determined by combustion in a PARR bomb.


These authors propose also that local abiotic conditions, especially water temperature, could explain the adults morphological divergence observed in individuals from the Tatio population, which represents an extreme in the morphological variation observed for this species.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This page was last edited on 28 Marchat Assimilation efficiency of Bufo spinulosus tadpoles of different geographic origin, maintained at two temperatures: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. However, the AE of food was shown to be significantly affected by the environmental temperature, type of diet and by the interaction between temperature and diet Table 1Fig.

Therefore, the inclusion of temperature in studies of dietary assimilation capacity is spinulodus important point, which up to date has been scarcely explored. Rhinella abei Rhinella achalensis Rhinella achavali Rhinella amabilis Rhinella amboroensis Rhinella arborescandens Rhinella arenarum Rhinella arunco Rhinella atacamensis Rhinella humboldti Rhinella bergi Rhinella chavin Rhinella cophotis Rhinella crucifer Rhinella diptycha Rhinella dorbignyi Rhinella fernandezae Rhinella fissipes Rhinella gallardoi Rhinella gnustae Rhinella granulosa Rhinella henseli Rhinella icterica Rhinella inca Rhinella jimi Rhinella justinianoi Rhinella lilyrodriguezae Rhinella nesiotes Rhinella ornata Rhinella poeppigii Rhinella pombali Rhinella pygmaea Rhinella quechua Rhinella rubescens Rhinella rubropunctata Rhinella rumbolli Rhinella spinulosa Rhinella schneideri Rhinella vellardi Rhinella veraguensis.

However, the energy that an organism obtain from food is mainly dependent upon its digestion i. RESULTS Because it is possible that the assimilation values obtained in our experiment could be influenced by comparing individuals produced by artificial reproduction Chusmiza and Farellones with individuals collected directly from spinulous Tatio spinulosue Chusmizawe performed a test in which we compared assimilation values categorizing by two conditions: In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.

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